Activist Photographers of Today

This post was written by Sadie Yankello, Rhodes College Intern, in February 2015.

"Die In" Rutgers Law Students January 2015

“Die In” activism is still present on social media, as Rutgers Law students are captured in this Instagram from January 2015.

The power of peaceful protest has not been lost. And as we have seen in the exhibition This Light of Ours: Activist Photographers of the Civil Rights Movement, photography is an indispensable means by which these moments–personal, powerful, and historical–can be captured. While we may have moved from film canisters to memory cards, documenting non-violent protest is no less relevant for our generation. Although some mass media outlets tended to focus on violent protests that have occurred in Ferguson since August, social media movements offer a grassroots telling of the non-violent activism.

"Die In" St. Louis Galleria shopping mall

An Instagram post of the “Die In” that occurred at Saint Louis Galleria shopping mall on Black Friday.

After the shooting of Michael Brown this past August, social media has been a means of organizing protests and activism. For example, multitudes of demonstrators organized via social media using the hashtags #notOneDime, #BlackLivesMatter, and #STLBlackFriday. The pictures captured of the huge groups of demonstrators playing dead are incredibly powerful and spread like wildfire on social media. Numerous other mass “die ins,” peaceful walks and marches, and thought provoking quotes can be found using these hashtags among others. Hashtags fuel the peaceful protest because they can help people organize, educate, and most importantly bring direct attention to major events and demonstrations. They are a way for people who are not present to remain informed, and involved, as they spur demonstrations in other areas. For example, the viral videos, Instagram images, and tweets from Saint Louis die-ins, spurred die-ins nationwide. There was even one at the National Civil Rights Museum here in Memphis.

#BlackLivesMatter image via Instagram

Image via instagram from #BlackLivesMatter march

The social media outcry in 2014 has common footing with the demands for equality found in the Civil Rights Movement of the 1960s. While the activist photographers of the 1960s were able to document the powerful protest happening at the time, social media can instantaneously echo and inform the public on what activist are doing on a daily basis.  Their message and impact can be spread further, and faster.  Imagine if the civil rights activists photographers had Twitter and Instagram, their powerful photos would have been able to spread courage, pride, and righteousness around the globe at the speed of light.

Matt Herron photograph of the Rev.Martin Luther King Jr. leading singing marchers from Selma to Montgomery

Matt Herron photograph of the Rev.Martin Luther King Jr. leading singing marchers from Selma to Montgomery in 1965.
© Matt Herron.

Learn more about This Light of Ours: Activist Photographers of the Civil Rights Movement

Shine Your Light on the World: Sonic Visionaries in African American Music

This post was written by Zandria F. Robinson, Assistant Professor of Sociology, The University of Memphis; Blogger, New South Negress; and author of This Ain’t Chicago: Race, Class, and Regional Identity in the Post-Soul South (University of North Carolina Press, 2014)

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March participants sing during a Deacons of Defense march through Bogalusa. Song was the glue that helped hold the civil rights community together. It fostered courage in times of danger, solidarity in times of stress. Matt Herron Bogalusa, Louisiana, 1965

this little light of mine

i’m gonna let it shine

shine bright like a diamond

umi says shine your light on the world

shine your light for the world to see.

turn on the lights in here baby

extra bright i wan’t y’all to see this

turn on the lights in here baby

you know what i need

want you to see everything

want you to see all of the lights

some people recognize the light

but they can’t handle the glare

we feel that we have a responsibility to shine the light

This Light of Ours: Activist Photographers of the Civil Rights Movement visually chronicles a critical moment in the modern African American struggle for freedom, highlighting how a diverse group of photographers used their lenses to capture the intersection of humanity and struggle. Photography is one of several mediums, along with sculpture, visual art, literature, and music, that African Americans have used to uncover obscured histories and speak back to oppression, holding America accountable for its promises and ideals of freedom and equality. Of these media, music has some of the most flexibility, employing narrative, sonic, and visual strategies to shine the light on inequality. As the soundtrack of protest and a site for theorizing black humanity and freedom, African American music turns on “all of the lights” to provide a vision for action and a more just future.

 In African American music, light is often a metaphor for the labor of black activism, for the articulation of black humanity, and as marginalized people’s primary weapon against oppression. The iconic “This Little Light of Mine,” a black Sunday School staple across the country, is one of the most widespread uses of light as a metaphor for the fullness of black humanity and talent. Its popularity as a children’s song demonstrates its use in the racial socialization of children, instilling pride in one’s gifts even in a society that denies their existence. The narrator in “This Little Light of Mine” resolves to “let” her or his light shine, suggesting that one might turn off, hide, or shield a light; thus, letting it shine is a deliberate and purposeful act. While the song’s original meaning might have been to encourage children to let their light shine in service of God, African Americans added additional layers of meaning. In addition to its relative simplicity, spirited tempo, and major key, the song’s narrative has obvious appeal to people who were compelled to hide their lights—their intelligence, literacy, skill, beauty—lest they suffer terribly or lose their lives at the hands of whites. Thus, as a post-Emancipation theme, the song served as an articulation of resistance, as a refusal to bracket parts of one’s humanity in order to fit into an unjust social order.

Demands to shine one’s light, as well to shine a light on oppression, echo throughout African American music, a constant reminder to embrace and assert one’s humanity in a social context where such humanity is perpetually denied. Often black love is a transgressive space where one is encouraged to shine her or his light, again despite structures and policies that are disruptive to black love. For instance, at first blush, Rihanna’s 2012 song “Diamonds” seems like a typical pop love anthem. Yet, read through the metaphor of light in African American songs, “Diamonds” is an affirmation of black love—“shine bright tonight/you and I/we’re beautiful like diamonds in the sky”—punctuated by the repeated directive refrain: “shine bright like a diamond/shine bright like a diamond/shine bright like a diamond.” Similarly, Common’s “The Light,” which samples a phrase from Bobby Caldwell’s “Open Your Eyes,” insists that, “there is a light that shines, special for you and me.” Common also argues that “some people recognize your light/but they can’t handle the glare,” which is both an assertion about a partner’s inability to appreciate one’s talents and a larger comment on black brightness. Here, the encouragement to shine one’s light does not come from one’s religious racial socialization, but from an intimate, though not necessarily romantic, love from one person to another.

As heir to the protest music of the Civil Rights Movement, hip-hop is replete with references to light as both an assertion of humanity and a weapon against oppression. With a cello introduction and triumphant synthesized trumpet melody, Kanye West’s “All of the Lights” is a call to action that implores us to turn on all lights extra bright—cop lights, flashlights, spotlights, strobe lights, and street lights. “I want y’all to see this,” Rihanna, as guest vocalist, sings, “you know what I need/want you to see everything/want you to see all of the lights.” This demand for the shining of lights is reminiscent of Mamie Till’s decision to shine the light on what had been done to her son Emmett by Roy Bryant, J. W. Milam, and still unknown accomplices in Money, Mississippi in 1955. Emmett Till’s mangled body was displayed in an open casket during his Chicago funeral, and pictures of his mutilation appeared in a September 1995 issues of Jet magazine. Like the disruption and awakening caused by these images, the official video for “All of the Lights” uses a variety of jarring light effects, reflecting the difficulty of shining the light on American inequality. Often maligned for its obscenity and vulgarity, hip-hop endeavors to shine the light on the vulgarity of inequality for everyone to see.

Rapper Yasiin Bey’s (Mos Def) corpus contains some of the most important ruminations on light in hip-hop. In conjunction with rapper Talib Kweli, Bey formed the duo “Black Star,” which in itself is a nod to the intersection of race and light. In the intro to the duo’s only album, Mos Def and Talib Kweli Are Black Star, a male narrator says, “We feel we have the responsibility to shine the light into the darkness.” Remix genius Amerigo Gazaway’s work reads Bey’s corpus as an extended dialogue with Marvin Gaye, whose movement music reflected and galvanized a generation frustrated with persistent economic and racial inequality. In “Modern Marvel,” a song from his album The New Danger, Bey samples Marvin Gaye’s “What’s Going On” and declares, “I’m so black I’m bright/I’m so bright I’m black/shine through the darkness night,” equating blackness itself with light.

In one of his most widely popular songs, “Umi Says,” Bey returns to themes voiced a century earlier in “This Little Light of Mine.” His umi and abi, mother and father in Arabic, as well as his elders, have told him to shine his light on the world. “Umi said shine your light on the world/shine your light for the world to see/my abi said shine your light on the world/shine your light for the world to see.” This light shining is punctuated by the repetition of a simple existential desire: “I want my people to be free, to be free, to be free/I want black people to be free, to be free.” Blackness, freedom, love, and active light become the centerpieces of transhistorical black struggles for freedom from the slave trade to present.

Black activists have always endeavored to shine the light on injustice, marshaling various means, from the pen to the camera to the courts, to speak back to systems of inequality. Regardless of the medium, light is the tool for affirming one’s humanity and making visible unjust structures that continue to constrain African American life chances. By marshaling light as a tool, black life becomes both light and freedom. As such, black people are responsible—to their parents, ancestors, themselves, each other, and to God—to shine the(ir) light on the world on the pathway to freedom.

Learn more about This Light of Ours: Activist Photographers of the Civil Rights Movement

This Light of Ours: Activist Photographers of the Civil Rights Movement

This Light of Ours: Activist Photographers of the Civil Rights Movement

Standing (top row L-R ) Chester Collins, Elaine L. Turner, Gwen Glover, David M., Ed Smith, TC Heard Seated (L-R) Johnnie R. Turner, Grace Austin Meacham Several local community members who were active in the Civil Rights Movement attended the opening of the exhibition, including these LeMoyne students who protested the segregation of the Brooks Museum in 1960.

On February 1, 1960, four Black students refused to leave a Woolworth’s lunch counter after being denied service. Over 24 more students came the next day along with a TV reporter. As the image of the students seated at the lunch counter spread around the country, so did sit-ins. On June 25th of that year, Woolworth’s was forced to desegregate their lunch counter. Policy changed; the “sit-in” was born.

This Light of Ours: Activist Photographers of the Civil Rights Movement is an exhibition of photographs taken during the Southern Freedom Movement. Organized by the Center for Documentary Expression and Art in Salt Lake City, Utah, it is on view at the Brooks through May 10, reaching Memphis during the 50th year anniversary of the Voting Rights Act, and 55 years after the legendary Woolworth’s lunch counter sit-in. Although you won’t see an image of efforts to integrate lunch counters in the exhibition, you could say that the sit-in indirectly inspired every image you will see: most of the photos on view were taken by members of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee, a group that formed after and was inspired by the sit-ins that spread across the country.

The Brooks is pleased to bring this exhibition to Memphis during such an important time of remembrance. Recent news events have launched social justice issues to the forefront of public discourse, and there is no better place than a museum to host and nurture these conversations. We brought in many community members to help us plan public programming to offer throughout the next few months. Take advantage. Bring your friends, family, coworkers, and thoughts.

Learn more about This Light of Ours: Activist Photographers of the Civil Rights Movement
Upcoming events

Symbols of History

News Channel 3’s Alex Coleman came by this morning to talk to our Chief Curator Marina Pacini about an upcoming auction of “Printed & Manuscript African Americana” by the the Swann Auction Galleries.  Mike Lollar of The Commercial Appeal wrote an article about it in today’s paper. Among the items up for auction (click here for Swann’s full catalogue) are a number of items from the Civil Rights movement, including one of very few surviving copies of the original poster carried by Memphis sanitation workers during the 1968 strike, bearing the message I AM A MAN.

One of the things that makes these posters so significant, Marina explains, is that this simple sentence, just a few words, so powerfully expresses the fundamental statement of Civil Rights.  It is also remarkable because the placards themselves were made from cardboard, that this one was kept and is in such good condidtion.

Also up for auction are photographs by Ernest Withers.  The Brooks considers ourselves very lucky to have a collection of Withers’ work, and we have a permanent tribute to the ground-breaking photographer in our rotunda. There is always one of his photographs on display on this special wall so visitors are able to see these historical images anytime they come in.  It is access to visual resources such as these, Marina says, that allows people to learn about and experience history in a new way.

The WREG story will appear sometime after 5pm today.

Read more about the museum’s collection of works on paper here.